162 - How to of Knowledge Development - what are the different ways knowledge gets developed and how can we create tools that help facilitate it?
163 - Ranking of Knowledge
If you imagine a graph quadrant:
Quadrant 1: High Utility & General Knowledge is knowledge that is widespread through society but is of high utility due to your ability to execute on it. Think about sports, where most people can play the game but only a handful can play at a high level. The two examples Cal Newport uses for these people in his 2012 book on skills are screenwriters and guitar players.
Quadrant 2: High Utility & Specialized Knowledge is the best type of knowledge you can learn. This is the knowledge that is highly sought after in society but not a lot of people can provide. This knowledge is often difficult to acquire (making it rare) because it is hard to understand or takes a long time to acquire.
Quadrant 3: Low Utility & General Knowledge is the information that still has utility but isn’t particularly valuable because of its ubiquitousness in society. Over time, more and more information gets slotted into this category due to the ability to search the internet and distributed learning (e.g. MOOCs).
Quadrant 4: Low Utility & Specialized Knowledge is the type of knowledge you often see liberal arts majors get mocked for in life. While knowledge about obscure literature still has utility as part of a larger picture, it isn’t highly sought after in society. If you have this type of knowledge, then you have to become much more creative in how you leverage it.
These help contribute to Future Roles in Work
164 - Steps to Learning
What to Learn
- Specialized Knowledge & Skills
- Path of Perfect Execution
- Unique & Valuable Skills Path
- 80,000 Hours Approach
- General Knowledge & Skills
- Solid understanding of the basics
- Natural Sciences
- Formal Sciences
- Social Sciences
- Mediums of Art
- Major Themes
- Natural Sciences
- Mental Models
- Thinking Skills
- Critical Thinking
- Creative Thinking
- Three Dimensional Thinking
- Analogical Thinking
- Communication Skills
- Social Media
- Productivity Skills
- Deep Work
- Habits & Routines
- Time Prioritization
- Solid understanding of the basics
- Working with Machines
- Gathering insights from Data
- Computer Programming
- Effective Communication
How to Learn
Finding the right learning material
- Different mediums of information?
- Video - lectures, short videos, etc
- Audio - audiobooks, podcasts, etc
- Written Word - books, blogs, wikis, websites, etc
- Online Courses (MOOCs)
- What makes a good source for learning?
- Good match w/ your prior knowledge
- Well written, makes explicit the model
- Different mediums of information?
Processing the material
- Structure Building the Model
- Components in Structure Building?
- Creating Retrieval Cues
- Deconstruct the Model for Memorization
- Structure Building the Model
- What are the different types of practice?
- Dynamic Testing
Further Research and Integration
165 - Model as a Latticework of Book Abstractions
Think of a book as a chain of ideas. With it you can either extract out the whole chain or individual links (ideas). Because ideas can be generalized, you will find the same ones across many different books.
For a practical example, see Developing a Model of Storytelling with a Zettelkasten
166 - Thinking of the Zettelkasten as a Machine
If you were to think about it as a function then it would look like:
Input: Information (books as primary sources)
- Abstract the information (Creating the Note)
- Connect the information (Linking the Note)
Output: Organized Information - Order is the name of the game and what is important in life. For example, a car requires not only for all the parts (information) to be there but for them also to be ordered in a specific way. This is why the organizational component (latticework of note sequences) of a zettelkasten is important.
167 - Example of a Book Deconstruction - if you think of a book as a sequence of ideas, then you want to create a “note sequence” of the most important ideas within the book. You also want each idea in the sequence to live as a standalone note such that you can remove it from the context of the book and have it stand on its own. This allows you to reference the note in other ones while still having it make sense when you revisit it in the far future.
A good resource for how to process books is Grad School Essentials by Zachary Shore.
The book I will be using is Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning by Peter C. Brown, Henry L. Roediger III and Mark A. McDaniel.
- Chapter 1 - Learning is Misunderstood - people tend to be pretty bad at learning because parts of good learning is counter intuitive and we have been duped by ideas that are not well supported.
- Chapter 2 - To Learn, Retrieve - the backbone of successful learning is Retrieval Practice and [[Testing]]
- Chapter 3 - Mix Up Your Practice - [[practice]], the application of our acquired knowledge is misunderstood. You want to avoid the commonly used [[massed practice]], while engaging in [[spaced]], [[interleaved]], and [[varied]] practice. These promote [[discrimination skills]].
- Chapter 4 - Embrace Difficulties - embrace [[desirable difficulties]] such as [[spacing]] and [[interleaving]] because the effort involved leads to more robust learning and better [[encoded] memories.
- Chapter 5 - Avoid Illusions of Knowing - we suffer from various [[illusions of knowing]] that make it hard for students to understand how well they’ve actually learned a concept, so it is important to learn how to [[calibrate your judgement]].
- Chapter 6 - Get Beyond Learning Styles - using [[learning styles]] are a poor strategy with little supporting evidence. Instead adopt [[active learning strategies]]. Distill the underlying principles ([[rule learning]]) and build the structure ([[mental model]] & [[structure building]]). Then update those models through [[Dynamic Testing]].
- Chapter 7 - Increase Your Abilities - the brain is very mutable ([[neuroplasticity]]). While [[brain training]] has no evidence, we know [[nutrition]] is good for the developing brain. Other ways to increase your [[intelligence]] include having a [[growth mindset]], doing [[deliberate practice]] and [[harness mnemonics]].
- Chapter 8 - Make It Stick - gives learning tips and applications of the above ideas for different types of students.
- Suggested Reading
Sequence of Ideas
- 1 - Learning is Misunderstood
- 2 - To Learn, Retrieve
- Learning through Reflection
- The Testing Effect / The Retrieval Practice Effect
- Retrieval Practice
- Effortful Retrieval
- Spaced Retrieval
- Delayed Feedback
- 3 - Mix Up Your Practice
- Massed Practice
- Spaced Practice
- Interleaved Practice
- Varied Practice
- Discrimination Skills
- 4 - Embrace Difficulties
- Desirable Difficulties
- Memory Encoding
- Memory Consolidation
- Memory Retrieval
- Retrieval Cues
- Memory Reconsolidation
- Mental Models
- Conceptual Learning
- Transfer of Learning
- 5 - Avoid Illusions of Knowing
- Illusions of Knowing
- Curse of Knowledge
- Dunning-Kruger Effect
- Calibrating Judgment
- 6 - Get Beyond Learning Styles
- 7 - Increase Your Abilities
- 8 - Make It Stick
- Suggested Reading
168 - To Index or Not Index - something I’ve been contemplating is the utility of an index. My first thought is that indexes are unnecessary in a digital zettelkasten because you have a search function. In a physical zettelkasten, you need some way of pointing you towards the location of topics when it isn’t obvious. In a digital zettelkasten, this isn’t necessary.
An index in a digital zettelkasten can be useful for quicker retrieval of note sequences. If I search the term “index” in the universal search tool, it will bring up every occurrence of the word index. While that can be useful, it isn’t what I’m trying to do. Instead I’m trying to find the start of my notes on the topic of index. By having the word logged into a manual index, I can go straight to the correct note instead of having to figure out in the search tool which result is the right one.
169 - What to look for in a Book - using the example book deconstruction as an example:
- Model - what set of rules about learning comes out of reading Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning?
- Key Concepts/Ideas - what are the main ideas the author wants you to take away and integrate into your own thinking?
- How the key concepts relate to the larger model - how do the key concepts discovered above relate to the rules?
- How the key concepts relate to each other?
- How the key concepts and larger model relate to other notes?
Successful learning involves
- Rule 1
- Rule 2
- Intentional Retrieval
- Desirable Difficulties
- Illusions of Knowing
Relating Key Concepts to Larger Model
Relating Key Concepts to Each Other
Relating new Notes to Existing Ones
170 - Utility is a common theme throughout how I approach thinking about zettelkasten and knowledge work more broadly. It is also useful to use as one of many lenses to think about life with. At the end of the day, we have limited time and must make a decision. Therefore you should consider the utility of an activity. I think where this conversation gets lost is that people often don’t understand the utility of activities and therefore perceive them as bad.
A common example of this is art. People often devalue art because it doesn’t have immediate utility in their mind. But art is important for the spread of culture, ideas, and values in a society. Even something that is devoid of meaning and purely aesthetic has utility if it promotes an appreciation for life and reality in your mind.
It is also important to create a distinction between utility and efficiency. You don’t want to chase utility to such a degree that you become rigid and dehumanize others. You often see this in business settings, where people get treated like widgets instead of humans with human needs.
Related to Applicability.
171 - Cycling through a set of Books
Learning Books as an Example
Begin Building the notes model with the initial book
Brown, Peter C. Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014.
Then you start reading more and adding to the initial structure
Weinstein, Yana, Megan Sumeracki, and Oliver Caviglioli. Understanding How We Learn: A Visual Guide . London ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2019.
Carey, Benedict. How We Learn: The Surprising Truth about When, Where, and Why It Happens . First edition. New York: Random House, 2014.
Oakley, Barbara A. A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra) . New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2014.
McGuire, Saundra Yancy, and Stephanie McGuire. Teach Yourself How to Learn: Strategies You Can Use to Ace Any Course at Any Level . First edition. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus, 2018.
Doyle, Terry. The New Science of Learning: How to Learn in Harmony with Your Brain . Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Pub, 2013.
Then you might start with introductory textbooks if you are still interested in the topic
Gluck, Mark A., Eduardo Mercado, and Catherine E. Myers. Learning and Memory: From Brain to Behavior . New York: Worth Publishers, 2008. Topic: Psychology
Bear, Mark F., Barry W. Connors, and Michael A. Paradiso. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain . Fourth edition. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer, 2016. Topic: Neuroscience
Then move onto intermediate textbooks
Baddeley, Alan D., Michael W. Eysenck, and Michael C. Anderson. Memory . Second edition. London ; New York, NY: Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015. Topic: Memory
McBride, Dawn M., and J. Cooper Cutting. Cognitive Psychology: Theory, Process, and Methodology . Los Angeles: Sage, 2016. Topic: Cognitive Psychology
Hoy, Anita Woolfolk. Educational Psychology . Fourteenth edition. New York, New York: PEARSON, 2019. Topic: Educational Psychology
Illeris, Knud, ed. Contemporary Theories of Learning: Learning Theorists… in Their Own Words . Second edition. London New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2018.
Then read more advanced textbooks
Byrne, John H. Learning and Memory: A Comprehensive Reference , 2018. http://www.credoreference.com/book/estlearning.
Murphy, Robin A, and Robert C Honey. The Wiley Handbook on the Cognitive Neuroscience of Learning , 2018. http://www.credoreference.com/book/wileyocnl.
Clark, Robert E, and Stephen J Martin. Behavioral Neuroscience of Learning and Memory , 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78757-2.
Then start to follow the current research
172 - Useful Links - a link becomes useful when it promotes further understanding on a topic. The problem you run into with this is that you don’t always know what level of understanding your future self will have on a subject matter. If you understand it really well down the line, then all the links you created become useless and distracting. If on the other hand, your level of prior knowledge on a topic is low then links that provide more information become very useful.
Related to concept of Utility
173 - Knowledge Management - is the second layer of abstraction in note taking, with the first being information storage as a solution to a limited memory. Once the information has been stored, then you add layers of structure to facilitate information retrieval. This means being able to find the right set of information once you are presented with a retrieval cue.
In the case of this note, perhaps you see the word retrieval cue and don’t know what the term means. So you either search for a note on it or type it into google. It is a stimulus (e.g. seeing the word on the screen) that prompts you to search for more information on it (e.g. google the phrase retrieval cue).
Traditionally, before the computer, people relied on custom search tools to find the information. These would take the form of an index, table of contents, reference book, or word of mouth.
The third layer of abstraction is the introduction of tools that promote not just management, but development.
174 - Zettelkasten is Learning - learning is essentially the process of taking in new information, processing it for long term storage, and tying it to your prior knowledge.
Learning, when done right, is going beyond just rote memorization. You are structure building mental models by combining the new information in front of you with what you already know. In Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised, the cognitive processes involved in learning are: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.
If you were to map the cognitive processes to the zettelkasten:
- Remember - basic storage and retrieval ability in the zettelkasten. You can type up a note and then find it again through the file explorer or search function.
- Understand - a topic in the zettelkasten through the creation of notes and interlinking them, such that you link to the wider context or topics. You can also facilitate understanding by removing the immediate context of a concept and writing it in your own words.
- Apply - include possible applications of a concept to help facilitate understanding.
- Analyze - further develop ideas in your zettelkasten by breaking down concepts into their constituent parts
- Evaluate claims and arguments within a zettelkasten by collecting evidence and counter evidence over a long period of time.
- Create new ideas in the zettelkasten by comparing two notes and thinking about how they might be related or can be “remixed”.
175 - Linking vs. Embedding in the Zettelkasten - what is the criteria one should use on deciding whether to just link to another note or create an embed within the note. This is the distinction between notes being directly and indirectly related. Is the new note part of a larger note sequence?
The process that I’m moving towards now after having thought about it, is to keep all notes on a given topic in a single note because we have the ability to edit notes and infinitely expand on a single note. In a digital system, the only reason to make notes atomic is to promote understanding. If I link to a note that is 2000 words long, then it could be confusing to know what idea I’m referencing specifically. On the flip side it isn’t necessary to atomize to the extent that I have so far. Where I’m settling down is to let notes naturally grow really long and only excise a paragraph and re-embed it in the document when I want to reference it elsewhere.
176 - Luhmann and Multiple Contexts - Luhmann had individual small notes because it was necessary for him to be able to reference notes in multiple contexts in a physical system. Because digital systems are more flexible, it only becomes advantageous to create note chains when you want to be able to reference a section of information in multiple contexts.
What does multiple contexts mean? Lets take a hypothetical person, named Bob Loblaw. I know him through work as a co worker. I typically think about him within the work context (context 1), when in reality he exists in multiple contexts.
- Context 2: He has a home life, where he exists as a father and husband.
- Context 3: He volunteers for the local wildlife as an expert in bird law.
- Context 4: He is part of a handball team, which he participates in weekly
He exists in all these different contexts, and it is limiting to only see him existing in one of these contexts.
Same for Ideas within books. They often can contribute to multiple contexts, so when you take an idea out of a book and create a note around it, you want it to be able to contribute to many different contexts. This is part of what allowed Luhmann to be so prolific, his ideas could mix and help enrich each other.
See Literature Notes vs. Permanent Notes #to-do
177 - Ideal Digital Zettelkasten Structure
- Facilitating Fast Information Retrieval
- Digital Index
- Search Functionality
- Facilitating Information Development
- Note Sequences
Having atomic notes and having that single note on a topic don’t have to be mutually exclusive. And, you seem to have both.
if I understand you well, you have atomic notes, which you “knit together” by embedding them in that single one topic note.
Isn’t it still the objective of a zettelkasten to “mix and help enrich each other” of the zettels? In other words, that, the way to find new associations and new ideas - serendipity.
Is search functionality part of a structure or part of the feature set of the zettelkasten?
A lot of people advocate creating atomic notes from the start. I actually think that is a waste of time and that you should only excise part of a note (making it into a new “atomic” note) when you want to reference it elsewhere, whether that be a link or an embed. Instead a note should look like an interweave between the notes content and embeds. The primary reason Luhmann used atomic notes is it allowed for the insertion of new information anywhere in the notes collection. In a digital system we do not face that issue because we can edit the text on the fly.
Yes the objective of a zettelkasten is knowledge development, which is essentially the remix of ideas or creation of new connections. Traditional note taking tools do not look to promote the development of knowledge but instead stick to just knowledge management (storing & retrieval of information).
Search functionality is not part of the feature set of a zettelkasten, but instead a more fundamental feature of information management (note taking) systems. Linear search is a nightmare so throughout time we create search tools to facilitate quicker search. In the far past this took the form of indexes, summaries, and table of contents. This is why Luhmann used an index, he needed a search tool.
Nowadays we have digital search tools that make it very easy, so we don’t necessarily need to use an index or other traditional search tools. You might ask why then do I have an index? Well I find that an index can still often be faster than using the universal search tool (the magnifying glass icon in top right corner of forum) because the universal search tool pulls up all the occurrences of a concept, when in reality I only want the first occurrence.
For example, my index takes me to the very first note on “Note Size”, whereas using the universal search tool brings up every occurrence of the word Note Size.