Is there a way to see backlinks without creating a markdown document?

You can get that info using a dataviewjs query, as the following one:

let d = {}
function process(k, v) {
  Object.keys(v).forEach(function (x) {
    x = dv.fileLink(x);
    if (d[x]==undefined) { d[x] = []; }
	.forEach(([k,v]) => process(k, v));
dv.table(["Non existing notes", "Linked from"],
         Object.entries(d).map(([k,v])=> [k, v.join(" • ")]))

This will generate a table with two columns, and as many rows as “non existing notes” in your vault.

In each row, the first cell will be the name of one of those “non existing note” (it is a link, so if you click on it the note will be created). The second cell in the row contains a list of elements concatenated (separated by the • symbol), each one being one note which references that “non existing note”. These elements are also links, so clicking on them the corresponding note will be open.